Journal Publications

Title and Abstract
Ho, C. S. M.,
Lee, T. L. T.
& Lu, J. Z.

Enhancing school appeal: How experiential marketing influences perceived school attractiveness in the urban context. Education and Urban Society.

This study explores the mechanisms that underlie the effect of school marketing strategies on parents’ perceived school attractiveness, particularly emphasizing the mediating role of parents’ perceptions of being welcomed in urban schools. Additionally, we investigated how schools’ marketing strategies work differently among parents with different value orientations toward schooling. Structural Equation Modeling and Cluster Analysis Data were applied to analyze 510 questionnaires collected from parents. Two experiential marketing strategies, namely, one-way disseminating materials and interactive social networking, impacted parents’ perceived attractiveness of schools differently with the feeling of being welcomed mediating the relationship between parents and schools. Additionally, parents’ value orientations toward schooling could be classified into three profiles. The results suggest that schools should consider parents’ needs and preferences concerning their children’s schooling and employ appropriate marketing strategies to engage different types of parents. To facilitate this outcome, individualized interaction is necessary to accommodate the diverse needs of parents. The overall structural equation model validates the mechanism of experiential marketing in influencing parental perceptions, and the cluster analysis underscores the need to explore the complex relationship between parents’ educational priorities and their interpretation of marketing strategies. learners.
Tang, J.,
Bryant, D. A.,
& Walker, A.

In search of the middle influence: Heads of teaching-research groups as leaders of professional learning in China. Educational Research, 65(4), 444-461.

Background Middle leaders are well placed to exert a positive influence on teacher learning, due in part to their proximity to the classroom. However, to maximise that potential, more needs to be understood about the complex connections between instruction-oriented middle leadership and professional learning, particularly in non-Western contexts.
Purpose This study, undertaken in a Chinese context, investigated how middle leaders, specifically those who headed teaching-research groups (TRGs), enacted their instructional leadership to influence teacher learning and build teacher capacity.
Method A qualitative, multi-case design was employed. Participants included 6 vice-principals, 18 TRG heads and 24 classroom teachers. Data collection, in the form of semi-structured interviews, observations, and field notes, was conducted over four months in six schools in China. Data analysis involved the synthesis of participant narratives to identify how middle leaders made sense of, and promoted, teacher learning through their instructional leadership.
Findings Analysis allowed themes and sub-themes to emerge, suggesting four domains of leadership practice: (i) nurturing teacher job-embedded learning, (ii) creating a climate conducive to teacher learning, (iii) engaging teachers in school-based action research and (iv) mobilising external resources to develop teachers. From this, an early-stage conceptual model was created, describing how middle leaders used their instructional leadership as a primary pathway of influence, and how they emphasised relational bonds and organisational structure to stimulate teacher learning.
Conclusion The findings provide insights into middle leadership in the Chinese context, yielding a view into core practices of middle leadership for teacher learning, and drawing attention to teacher development practices that are relevant in other contexts internationally. Tapping into the potential of the middle leader to support teachers’ professional learning can contribute to wider school improvement, ultimately benefitting all learners.

Gardner-McTaggart, A., Bunnell, T., Resnik, J.,
Tarc, P.,
& Wright, E.

Can the International Baccalaureate (IB) make a better and more peaceful world? Illuminating limits and possibilities of the International Baccalaureate movement/programs in a time of global crises. Globalisation, Societies and Education. 10.1080/14767724.2023.2252435.

Welcome to this special issue of Globalisation Societies and Education, which brings together scho-lars, practitioners, and researchers from all over the globe to address the questions of whether andhow the 1968-established International Baccalaureate (IB) may be a legitimate form of educationalprovision for the betterment of a rapidly changing world. The diverse‘IB World’currently involves5,760 schools offering a mixture of four programmes from K-12. This editorial begins by identifyingthe short circuits, limits and enablers with regard to the IB’s stated mission. Thisforeword then outlines the context of our enquiry through the scope of this original special issueand follows by laying out each article in brief. The concluding discussion returns to the aims ofthe special issue and briefly considers where the contributions collectively leave us.

Keywords: The International Baccalaureate; Globalisation; Neoliberalism; Franchise Education; Global Ctizenship; Democracy
Hassan, K.,
& Wright, E.

Gender and leadership: Student perspectives on gender stereotypes in Round Square schools. ECNU Review of Education. 10.1177/20965311231210010.

Purpose Leadership is a valuable skill for young people to navigate transformations in modern societies and find solutions to overcome global crises. However, gender stereotypes regarding leadership persist, potentially limiting female students’ leadership aspirations, experiences, and opportunities in schools. This study explores student perspectives on gender and leadership through the conceptual lens of student voice.
Design/Approach/Methods Interviews were conducted with students (n = 93) from 12 Round Square secondary schools in 11 countries: Australia, Argentina, Chile, China, India (two schools), New Zealand, the United States, Korea, Switzerland, Tanzania, and South Africa.
Findings The findings demonstrate how interest in developing and practicing leadership transcends gender. The students exhibited a deep conviction in their ability to initiate change through leadership in their schools and communities. However, female students were more cognizant of gender stereotypes regarding leadership and how this represented a barrier to realizing leadership opportunities.
Originality/Value This study presents students’ perspectives on leadership and gender in contexts that appear favorable for student leadership. Primarily, it argues that although schools may seek to promote equality in leadership opportunities, female students often remain comparatively sensitive to and aware of gender stereotypes. Overall, the study highlights the complex and deeply entrenched barriers to female leadership.
Zhang, Y.,
Chen, J.,
& Tsang, K.

Responsible leadership, teacher recognition, and teacher emotional well-being: An investigation of gender difference. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice.

Teacher emotional well-being is under challenges. Although previous research has revealed the positive effects of responsible leadership in education fields, its influence on teacher emotional well-being has remained underdeveloped. Therefore, this study aimed to fill the research gap by examining the direct effect of responsible leadership on teacher emotional well-being and testing the mediation effects of teacher recognition and gender difference. By surveying a total of 486 teacher responses working in public primary and secondary schools in China, the study revealed that responsible leadership is associated with teacher emotional well-being significantly through the mediation effect of recognition for social esteem and a significant gender difference among these relationships. The findings and implications are discussed further.

Keywords: Responsible Leadership, Teacher Recognition, Teacher Emotional Well-being, Gender Difference
Chen, J.

Conceptualizing principal resilience: Development and validation of The Principal Resilience Inventory. Educational Management Administration & Leadership,

Leading a school during the uncertainties of challenges, changes, and crises requires school principals to respond and react effectively, cohesively and proactively using resilience. Rather than using discrete contracts or dimensions to measure principal resilience, this paper tended to develop and validate a multidimensional instrument of principal resilience. Derived from the existing literature and three empirical studies, a 20-item Principal Resilience Inventory has been established by using a rational-theoretical approach of test construction with various samples of school principals from Hong Kong and Mainland China. The Principal Resilience Inventory encompasses five dimensions that capture the most salient resilience experience of school principals including physical, emotional, psychological, cognitive, and social resilience. Given a robust validation procedure, this instrument offers solid proof of the psychometric properties. It is expected that this validated measure can serve as a more robust means for gauging comprehensive investigations of principal resilience. Indeed, principal resilience is not just a buzzword, but an important quality that supports principals to infuse themselves into their professional lives in pursuit of the collective good.

Li, J.B.,
Deng, J.,
Xu, Y.,
Sun, J.,
Chen, J.,
Datu, J.,
Zhang, R.,
& Qiu, S.

Which Well-Being Elements Are Fundamental for Early Childhood Educators in the Chinese Context? A Network Analysis. Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Early childhood educators’ (ECEs) well-being has attracted worldwide attention given its importance to many individual, organizational, and child outcomes. ECEs’ well-being is a multidimensional construct that encompasses a number of elements. These elements are interrelated and represent a complex psychological network. Scant research has examined the features of this network and whether the network would be upheld for ECEs across career stages. This study uses a network analysis to identify pervasive and robust features of well-being in ECEs from diverse career developmental phases. Participants were 1,188 ECEs (1,008 females, Mage = 32.19 years) recruited from four cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. They reported mental (i.e., subjective well-being and psychological well-being), occupational (i.e., job stress, job satisfaction, job burnout, and work engagement), and physical (i.e., physical health and role functioning of health) well-being. The results showed that emotional exhaustion was the most central element in the network whilst some other eudaimonic elements from the occupational aspect (e.g., vigor, dedication, and depersonalization) also occupied relatively important places. Further invariance analyses suggested that the above network was largely equivalent across ECEs at the novice, advanced beginner, and competent career stages. Theoretically, this study informs which elements are playing the fundamental role in the holistic well-being network among Chinese ECEs. Practically, the findings also provide implications for prevention and intervention strategies and career counselling to enhance Chinese ECEs’ different aspects of well-being.

Pietsch, M.,
Aydin, B.,
& Gümüş, S.

Putting the Instructional Leadership–Student Achievement Relation in Context: A Meta-Analytical Big Data Study Across Cultures and Time. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis.

Aggregated data meta-analyses indicate a correlation between instructional leadership and student achievement. However, it is unclear to what extent this relationship can be generalized across cultural contexts, as most primary studies stem from Anglophone regions. Drawing on international large-scale assessment data, this 3-level individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis examines this relationship over a 6-year period using a sample of 1.5 million students in more than 50,000 schools from 75 countries. The findings show that the mean correlation is close to 0 and that the relationship between instructional leadership and student achievement varies significantly across contexts. This is mainly due to the level of human development and cultural factors. Implications for policy, practice, and education research are discussed.

Karakus, M.,
Toprak, M.,
& Chen, J.

Transformational leadership in school settings: A systematic review of existing evidence from a non-Western education context. Journal of Educational Administration, 61(5), 514-530.

Purpose – This study intends to systematically review empirical evidence on transformational school leadership (TSL) in a centralized educational context. Design/methodology/approach – The study includes a topographical mapping and a narrative review of thirty-seven research articles published in Turkey between 2000 and 2021. The review strategy included systematically searching the Turkish Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM) and Scopus. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram guided the review and reporting process.
Findings – Three key themes emerged: (1) perceptions, attitudes and behaviors; (2) psychological resources, learning and innovation and (3) school climate and culture. The results indicated that the research evidence on TSL in the review did not correspond well with the evidence on TSL in non-Western contexts. The authors also discussed the state of research narratively to provide an overview of the topical foci and methodological and conceptual trends.
Research limitations/implications – First, although the databases of the study are claimed to be regularly updated locally, these two search databases may inevitably have missed some journal articles relevant to the inclusion criteria. A possible solution is to include more databases like ERIC, PsycArticles, SAGE, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Web of Science and ProQuest. Second, the authors decided to limit the exploration of journal articles on transformative leadership to peer-reviewed journal articles. The authors might have missed a wider range of insights available in book chapters, books, research papers, dissertations and gray literature. Third, as there were many levels of research foci, the authors did the coding on research foci and methods. However, the approach may not allow authors to explore the relationships between research foci and method design. One possible solution is to do all coding in one file so that more complex analysis can follow. Finally, the authors agree that TSL is only one leadership style that is related to leadership effectiveness and that effective leadership is multi-faceted and requires a combination of leadership styles. Accordingly, the evidence in the study sheds light on only one dimension of leadership effectiveness.
Originality/value – Our review is part of an effort to demonstrate the importance of a culturally-situated understanding of TSL and to develop a globally validated knowledge base. It identifies and summarizes research in a non-Western school context defined by centrality, lack of autonomy and accountability.

Keywords Transformational School Leadership, Systematic Review, Topographical Mapping
Ho, C. S. M.

Unpacking the Principal Strategies in Leveraging Weighted Student Funding. Sustainability, 15(16).

Weighted student funding (WSF) systems have been implemented in various countries to give schools more autonomy over how to allocate their funding. School principals use funding to maintain school operations and foster innovation for achieving educational goals. However, despite the importance of this process, scholarly research has largely overlooked how principals make decisions about allocating their financial resources. Accordingly, this study seeks to provide practical insights into the strategies used by one school by highlighting their staff’s perceptions about using their WSF to maintain school operations and spur innovation. Using a case study approach, we investigated a principal who effectively used a school’s WSF to transform a failing school into an innovative one. The findings revealed that the principal strategically implemented financial management mechanisms in a way that inspired teachers to consider more profoundly how a school’s WSF can help achieve educational goals. The principal fostered consensus on the school’s direction, encouraged innovation through hands-on experiential learning and strategic planning, and facilitated funding for innovative teachers by guiding proposal development. In the final section of this article, insights into the shifting cultural and practical landscape of financial resource utilization within schools are discussed.

Keeywords: Weighted Student Funding; School Financial Management; Principal Leadership; School Innovations; Failing School

Ho, C. S. M.,
& Lee, D. H. L.

The effect of authority transitions on teachers’ entrepreneurial behavior. Teacher Development, 27(3), 333–352.

This study identifies how a teacher’s entrepreneurial behavior (TEB) changed when promoted to higher positions in a school. It distills her experiences over time to uncover the symbiotic relationship between teaching and administrative entrepreneurial behaviors in promoting school innovation. Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with teachers in the school, the results indicate that her TEB shifted from self-empowerment via school innovation to empowering others as she gained administrative authority. As a classroom teacher or subject head, the focal teacher developed ownership of innovation advocacy as a teacher leader, exhibiting resource-seeking behaviors and taking risks to spearhead change within her sphere of control. She faced an ‘innovation cliff’ when she transitioned to a school leadership role and acquired administrative authority. However, she eventually succeeded in scaling up whole-school entrepreneurial behavior and innovation as a school principal. This case study indicates the need for a major transformation of teacher development as teachers scale the organizational hierarchy to take on administrative roles. School leaders should act as resource providers to empower the entrepreneurial behaviors of other teachers and students. This requirement represents a turning point in teacher development, as earlier stages of TEB involve resource acquisition for self-empowerment.

Keeywords: Teacher Entrepreneurial Behavior, Teacher Entrepreneurialism, Teacher Innovation, Administrative Authority, Teacher Leadership

Campbell, P.,
Klein, E. D.,
& Sawalhi, R. J.

Leading in times of disruption – preparedness, problems, and possibilities (Part 1), School Leadership & Management, 43(2), 99-103.

Leadership in times of disruption has garnered attention in recent years as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, prior to the pandemic, constitutional uncertainty, forced migration, climate emergency, and the challenges of a post-truth era were some aspects of the complexities societies were facing, and education systems were tasked with responding to Campbell (Citation2020). While perhaps changing in nature and form, these challenges persist, and education and the work of schools remain at the forefront of how societies respond in times of disruption and uncertainty. The purpose of this special issue guest edited by the Educational Leadership Network leaders (ELN) of the International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement (ICSEI) has been to highlight and illustrate not only the complex demands and roles of leadership in schools and education systems, but to explore how leaders at various levels of education systems make sense of the challenges they face, and the role of leadership learning in this prior to, during, and after periods of disruption and uncertainty. This is framed through the important considerations of the varied characteristics that guide how we understand leaders and their leadership practice based on who they are as individuals, their schools, communities, and broader systemic and institutional contexts.

Bhowmil, M. K., Walker, A.,
& Bryant, D. A.

Reconceptualizing inclusive leadership to address diversity in schools. Multicultural Education Review,


Through combining a diversity perspective and intersectionality approach, this paper contributes to the conceptualization of inclusive leadership for addressing diversity in schools. Drawing on literature from business and management studies as well as that of educational management and leadership, the paper first theorizes inclusive school leadership and outlines the tenets of inclusive school leaders. It then highlights some of the challenges facing school leaders as they strive to build inclusive schools and practices. The paper then identifies and illustrates the traits, profiles and competencies of inclusive school leaders and explicates a number of promising approaches to leading inclusive schools. It also outlines an agenda to underpin the development of inclusive leadership capabilities and how leaders might nurture positive school cultures which not only respect but celebrate diversity and inclusion. The paper concludes by discussing strategies inclusive school leaders can use to meet the challenges accompanying disruptive times and beyond.

Keywords: Inclusive School Leadership, Diversity, Intersectionality, Minorotized Students, COVID-19

Zhan, Y.,
Wan, Z. H.,
Chen, J.,
& Wang, M.

How is student resilience affected by teacher feedback, teacher support, and achievement goals? A mediation model based on PISA 2018 survey dta. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, DOI:10.1007/s40299-023-00764-8.

Although teacher feedback and teacher support are believed as important predictors of student resilience, few studies have compared their effects on student resilience and explored how such effects are mediated by students’ achievement goals. To address this gap, this study analysed the PISA 2018 student survey data on the four variables (i.e., student resilience, teacher feedback, teacher support and achievement goals) obtained from 41,872 participants (girls = 20,527; boys = 21,345) in six academically high-performing East Asian countries/ economies. The findings showed that (i) mastery and performance-approach goals significantly and positively predicted student resilience while the impacts of performance-avoidance goals on student resilience were negative; (ii) teacher feedback exerted a significant positive influence on student resilience both directly and indirectly, and the indirect influence was mediated by students’ achievement goals; and (iii) teacher support had only an indirect significant positive effect on student resilience mediated by achievement goals. This study establishes a mediation model to associate teacher feedback and support with student resilience via students’ achievement goals. It also reveals the cultural relevance of student resilience. The findings have implications for East Asian teachers to cultivate resilient students in changing times.

Chen, J, Chen, X., Hallinger, P.,
& Lee, C. K.

Looking back and ahead: A bibliometric review of research on principal well-being, 1962–2022. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. DOI: 10.1177/17411432231190217.

This systematic review employed bibliometric methods to examine the meta-data of 244 documents on principal well-being during 61 years starting from its birth in 1962 to 2022. This review aimed at summarising the descriptive trends, identifying the most influential and popular themes and uncovering its underlying intellectual structure on principal well-being. Citation and author co-citation analysis was also applied in this review. The combination of the descriptive and bibliometric techniques with a large corpus of scientific outputs allows broader overviews but deeper insights into the past, present and future of the knowledge production and evolution of principal well-being literature. This bibliometric review provides ‘high ground’ signposts on the historical path of intellectual accumulation of principal well-being literature using a far larger corpus of publications than previous reviews.

Qian, H.,
Walker, A.,
& Chen, S.

The ‘Double-Reduction’ education policy in China: Three prevailing narratives. Journal of Education Policy. DOI: 10.1080/02680939.2023.2222381.

In July 2021 the Chinese Government unexpectedly released what has become known colloquially as the ‘Double-Reduction’ policy. The policy decreed the reduction of homework pressure on students and greater control of private tutorial companies. In this paper, we set out to understand why the Chinese central government launched the ‘Double-Reduction’ policy in mid−2021 by using narratives to analyse the three most circulated explanations for the policy and its timing. We use data from a range of formal and informal policy texts. The three narratives, including one policy narrative dominant in the official discourse and two alternative ones, constructed the causal stories about the policy’s rationale from multiple perspectives. The combination of multiple perspectives and a narrative approach helps reveal the policy event’s complexity and lays a foundation for researchers interested in tracking the development trajectory of this new policy.

Qian, H.,
Walker, A.,
& Zheng, Y. L.

Boundary-spanning practices of system leaders in China: Enabling conditions and inherent tensions. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. DOI: 10.1177/17411432231174690.

There is currently considerable interest in system leadership and how it can support school change at scale. System leadership aims to move learning beyond school boundaries through leveraging experience and expertise. The success of system leadership depends on how key educational players can move effectively between and across traditional educational boundaries. China’s education system has long-established system infrastructure to support boundary spanning. This paper presents three selected different types of system leaders who span across boundaries to build relationships, interconnections and interdependencies to enhance collective teacher capacity across their systems. The paper argues that working in a centralised, top-down system creates enabling conditions which facilitate boundary practices. It further suggests that such conditions form tensions which risk reproducing static systems when leadership is enacted hierarchically. Enabling conditions include established routines, roles and values which empower boundary spanners to leverage their expertise. System tensions can arise between the centre and periphery, between responsibility and professional power and between diversity and homogeneity.

Keywords: China, Boundary Spanning, Insfrastructure, System Leadership

Qian, H.,
Walker, A.,
& Xu, X.

Running schools on two legs: The impact of policy oscillation on a public-private partnership school in China. International Journal of Educational Development, .

This article aims to deepen our understanding of the impact of an oscillating policy environment on nontraditional schools in China since 2010. It does this through analysing policy documents and an analytic case study of one newly founded school in Shenzhen, China. The wavering policy environment framing the paper reflects a long-running internal government tussle between educational centralization and decentralization. The article first maps the trajectory of policy change associated with the “walking on two legs” tradition. It then examines how national policies are locally interpreted and enacted by depicting one school’s historical episode and re-examines the case from a macro social change perspective to understand why the policy environment changed. The paper explores the issue by asking what significant policies describe China’s “running schools on two legs” policy approach, how the oscillating policy environment influenced practices in one school and why the government changed its stance to re-centralize control of education. The paper discusses a number of implications arising from the case and shows the power of central policy ideology on the shape and purpose of schools.

Keywords: China, Education, Policy, Decentralization, Mpm-traditional Schools, Public-private Partnerships

Chen, J.,
Bellibaş, M. S.,
& Gümüş, S.

Impact of school climate and resources on principal workload stress and job satisfaction: Multinational evidence from TALIS 2018 data. Journal of Educational Administration.

Purpose – The research aimed to examine the effects of school climate (school violence and community engagement) and resources (staff shortages and resource shortages) on job satisfaction mediated by the workload stress of school principals, using pooled data from 47 jurisdictions around the world..
Design/methodology/approach – his study employed a rigorous secondary analysis of principal job satisfaction using the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018 dataset. The mediation analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) performed using STATA software established a structured model by controlling region-fixed effect, principal demographic and school contextual characteristics.
Findings – This study established a model detailing the associations between school climate and resources and principal job satisfaction mediated by workload stress.t.
Research limitations/implications – The inventory will aid efforts to promote principal well-being as an essential component of schoolwide well-being, quality education and a wellness society.
Originality/value – Given the crucial role of a school principal in leading school survival and success, this study may provide one timely method to enhance job satisfaction and performance of principals during a period of constant change marked by increasing job demands.

Keywords Job Satisfaction, Job Resources, School Climate, TALIS 2018, Workload Stress

Chen, J.,
Walker, A.,
& Riley, P.

Reconceptualizing principal well-being: State, measurement, and consequences. Journal of Educational Administration,

Purpose – Principals’ well-being worldwide is under increasing threat due to the challenging and complexnature of their work and growing demands. This paper aimed at developing and validating a multidimensional Principal Well-being Inventory (PWI) and examining the state and consequences of principal well-being.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper involves four independent samples of principals working in schools from Hong Kong and Mainland China. The research design consisted of four phases with four sequential empirical studies. Phase 1 was to establish the content validity (literature review and Study 1); Phase 2 was to test the construct validity (Study 2 and Study 3); Phase 3 was to build the criterion validity (re-use the data from Study 3) and Phase 4 was to test the cross-validity of the PWI (Study 4).
Findings – Based on published literature and four successive empirical studies, a 24-item PWI was created via a theoretical-empirical approach of test construction. Validity was confirmed through construct-, content-, criterion- and cross-validity testing. The PWI covers the six important well-being dimensions – physical, cognitive, emotional, psychological, social and spiritual – to present a general picture of principals’ occupational well-being associated with job nature, well-being literacy, leadership and context.
Research limitations/implications – The inventory will aid efforts to promote principal well-being as an essential component of schoolwide well-being, quality education and a wellness society.
Practical implications – During the post-COVID-19 period, this project is deemed both critical and timely so that quality education will not be sacrificed due to factors affecting principal well-being.
Originality/value – This theoretically and empirically validated inventory serves as a robust tool for comprehensively understanding principal well-being and a fuller exploration of their well-being literacy, drivers and outcomes.

Keywords Principal, Well-being, Theoretical-empirical approach, Mixed Method, Instrument Validation
Paper type Research Paper.

Wright, E.,
Lee, M.,
Walker, A.,
Bryant, D.,
Choi, S., &
Hassan, K.

Developing the next generation of leaders: A global study of student leadership. Educational Studies,

Schools play a crucial role in developing the next generation of leaders. However, most leadership research in schools focuses on adults rather than students. In this article, we apply a reimagined human capital framework to investigate student perspectives on leadership at a global association of elite schools. Based on survey data from 6,760 students in 34 countries and interview data from 93 students in 11 countries, the findings demonstrate student perspectives on leadership, how leadership is developed, and how student leaders can drive social change. First, we discuss how schools can support leadership development by understanding how students conceptualise leadership, promoting an ethos that leadership can be learnt, and providing opportunities for ‘hands-on’ leadership experience. Second, we highlight student views on the social returns of student leadership. Finally, we draw attention to the importance of inclusivity in leadership opportunities. Overall, we underscore the importance of schools expanding student leadership opportunities.

Yemiini, M., Maxwell, C., Wright, E.,
Engle, L.,
& Lee, M.

Cosmopolitan nationalism as an analytical lens: Four articulations in education policy. Policy Futures in Education, 0(0).

Cosmopolitanism and nationalism are often presented in binary terms, as standing in opposition to each other, especially with regards to education. In this paper, we establish a framework for studying education policy today through the lens of a concept we have developed: ‘cosmopolitan nationalism’. Many education systems around the world are grappling with and simultaneously integrating both cosmopolitan and nationalist elements in policy objectives, curricular content and pedagogic approaches. Through an in-depth analysis of three country examples – China, the US and Israel – we outline four different manifestations of education policy that can be explained by employing the analytical lens of cosmopolitan nationalism: (i) the increasing prominence and visibility of the International Baccalaureate within these three public education systems; (ii) reforms of specific curricula elements and pedagogies legitimised with reference to approaches assessed as globally leading through international assessments; (iii) efforts to promote national education systems as international beacons of best practice; (iv) creation of alternative education provisions that are promoted globally for very specific purposes and populations. We argue that, given our heterogeneous sample of case study countries, and careful analysis of these, a cosmopolitan nationalism lens offers important insights into education policy-making today which has the potential to be applied in other contexts.

Tang, H.H.H.,
& Dang, B.Y.Y.

Warming up or cooling out? Educational desire and higher education participation in an Asian context. The Australian Educational Researcher, 50, 823 – 844.

Concerns of equity with respect to the community college model in East Asia persist in educational research. In this study, we described and analysed students’ “lived experience” in community colleges in Hong Kong in terms of the “warming up” or “cooling out” of their educational desire. Semistructured interviews with 14 graduates of community colleges in Hong Kong were conducted to determine how their experiences at community colleges affected their educational expectations and the extent to which community colleges help students reconsider their educational disadvantages in a competitive, meritocratic and massified higher education system. The qualitative interview data were inductively thematised into four aspects of college experience in relation to their educational expectations. The data revealed that Hong Kong’s community colleges help some students develop their capabilities and change their educational expectations through democratic admissions, liberal pedagogic environments, learner-centred formative assessment and student services for strategic university articulation. Rather than cooling-out students’ educational desire (characterised by gradual disengagement, objective denial, alternative achievement), community colleges in Hong Kong provide a second chance for failing and disadvantaged students to pursue a university education, but this warming-up function applies only to students who benefitted from the liberal mode of assessment and discovered and developed their academic capabilities in their college experience. The paper ends with a critical analysis of the problem of such warming up of educational desire and the extent to which community colleges can empower disadvantaged students for a good life.
Yu, D. Q.,
& Chen, J..

Emotional well-being and performance of middle leaders: The role of organizational trust in early childhood education. Journal of Educational Administration,
Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Purpose: The current study investigated the impact of organisational trust on emotional well-being and performance of middle leaders during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Design/methodology/approach: A convenience sample of 265 middle leaders in kindergartens in China responded involving trust in schools (e.g. trust in principal and trust in colleagues), emotional well-being and job performance. Both confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used in the investigation.
Findings: Three hypotheses on the relationships between the three constructs were verified. Trust in schools significantly influenced emotional well-being and job performance of middle leaders which correlated with each other. The interactive effects of trust in principal and trust in colleagues were discussed for improving the well-being and job performance of middle leaders. Relationships between the two kinds of trust and pride were also identified in the research.
Research limitations/implications: Further studies may put efforts towards improving these three outcomes synchronously.
Practical implications: Based on the evidence of the current study, future research may focus on how middle leaders act as a bridging role between different stakeholders such as principal and teachers, principal and parents, teachers and children, meanwhile how to boost the leaders' own well-being and performance in the early childhood education (ECE).
Originality/value: This study established the empirical linkages between school trusts, emotional well-being and job performance.

Keywords: Middle leader, Trust in principal, Trust in colleagues, Emotional well-being, Job performance
Kuang, X.,
Lee, J.C-K.,
& Chen, J.

Chinese virtues and resilience of students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(4), 37-69.

Character strengths and training have a great impact on students’ whole-person development. This study examined the applicability of the Chinese virtues questionnaire (CVQ) and the relationships between students’ perceptions of virtues and resilience in Hong Kong, SAR, China. A total of 2468 pupils from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong were recruited as the sample for this study. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a measurement model of Chinese virtues, and the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggested that Chinese virtues were positively related to positive resilience and succumbing. Significant relationships were found between gender and students’ positive resilience, and school grade level showed a significant impact on the Chinese virtues, which in turn affect resilience. Student resilience could be enhanced by nurturing virtues and related character strengths, keeping in mind the role of gender and grade level.

Keywords: Chinese virtues, resilience, quantitative, gender, school grade level
Lu, T. P. P.,
& Chen, J.

The effects of teacher’s emotional intelligence on team-member exchange and job performance: The moderating role of teacher seniority. Current Psychology.

This study aims to examine the effects of teachers’ seniority, emotional intelligence (EI), and team-member exchange (TMX) quality on their job performance in primary schools. In particular, the mediating role of TMX on the relationship between EI and job performance, and the moderated mediating effect of teacher seniority on EI-TMX-job performance relationships were scrutinised. Data were collected from 387 teachers of primary schools in Taiwan. The SPSS PROCESS macro and structural equation modelling (SEM) were applied to test the hypotheses using SPSS 26.0. The research findings indicated that primary teachers’ EI positively affected their TMX and job performance. The findings also provide empirical evidence for the positive mediating effect of TMX on the relationship between EI and job performance, as well as the negative moderating effect of teachers’ seniority on the linkage between EI and TMX. Recommendations are made on the enhancement of teachers’ EI and the relationship of TMX in teachers’ professional development programs, educational policies, and practice.

Zhang, L.,
Chen, J.,
Li, X.,
& Zhan, Y.

A scope review of the teacher well-being research between 1968 and 2021. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher,

This review aimed at portraying a nuanced picture of the trajectory of teacher well-being research during 54 years from 1968 to 2021. This review used descriptive quantitative analysis with a dataset of 774 journal articles. The developmental trend demonstrates a considerable change in the volume of publications conducted during the most recent 14 years. Findings of the current review identify that research foci have covered the antecedents, nature, and effects of teacher well-being in a descending manner. Quantitative methods were observed as the most frequently used method in research studies. Moreover, the use of qualitative and mixed research methods increased in recent times. However, due to the considerable absence of mixed methods, longitudinal, and experimental research designs in this review’s corpus, our interpretation has been restricted to the ways in which teacher well-being can affect as well as be affected by associated constructs. Research on teacher well-being positions itself at the intermediate stage focusing on fusion relations combining new and recognized structures and adopting qualitative as well as quantitative practices. This review supports the evolution of the teacher well-being literature and poses recommendations for future research.

<未來學校之功能、結構與美感 >, 《未來教育研究(集刊)》,2023 (1): 73-85.

Chen, J.,
Zhang, L.,
Li, Y., Li, X.,
& Yan, Z.
(in press).

Understanding teacher well-being from a new perspective. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice.

Yang, L.,
Lee, J. C-K.,
& Chen, J.
(in press).

Studying teaching assistants’ emotions, satisfaction with teaching life, and adding this “missing” piece to teacher well-being research. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice.

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