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Educators often have as one of their aims to enhance society through positively impacting individual children’s lives. In this context, equality is a common value of educators, as they want to give every young person an opportunity to succeed in life through meaningful, high-quality education. On the other hand, education often increases rather than decreases inequalities and inequities, within and across societies. While most school teachers and educational leaders aspire to enable equality and equity, through fair provision of school resources and equal treatment of students, educational processes and outcomes often mirror those of the larger society – where inequality remains commonplace based on characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. This course focuses on inequality in education, by considering education as a cultural activity that engages issues of identity, difference, and power. It will examine different, sometimes contradictory theories on interculturalism, including assimilation, multicultural pluralism, the politics of recognition, and critical multiculturalism. Policies, practices, and challenges in multicultural education and education for social justice in Hong Kong and China will be compared with international experiences. The goal is to examine the extent and varied features of inequality faced by children and educators today and to imagine a more equitable system for all students.