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Contemporary understanding of the science of the brain has enabled philosophers, medical practitioners, and ethicists to arrive at a more precise and consistent position regarding the debates of abortion, euthanasia and animal ethics than before. This includes the understanding that the nature of persons consists in their being able to engage in rational thinking, self-awareness and autonomous decisions, etc. No one will be able to exercise these abilities if they do not have a well-developed upper brain, or cerebral cortex. As a result, we can derive a range of judgments with regard to the moral importance of an early fetus (who has hardly developed synaptic connection in its brain), of a PVS patient (who may not not have an intact cerebral cortex), and of certain highly intelligent mammals like chimpanzees (whose brain functions like those of humans), etc. In short, for some beings who do not have a well-functioned upper brain, they cannot claim to have an important moral status; at the same time, regarding some other beings like the chimpanzees and dolphins, we can see why they deserve a higher moral status than they have now. This course is not merely about the biology of the brains, but more important ethics and the reasons of why certain living organisms matter. Personal identity, brain science and bioethics are interrelated subjects. Students who take this course will learn about the basic functions and structure of the human brains, and will apply this knowledge in the discussion of euthanasia, abortion, and animal ethics. At the end of the course, students will apprehend the biological grounds of the special moral statues of persons, and can explain why the survival of certain organisms may mean less than that of others.