Debates on National Education

1. Introduction
2.
Commentaries: Newspaper Articles and Other Media 
3. Journal Publications
4. Book Chapters
5. Conference Papers

 
1. Introduction

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region first released the Consultation Document of the Curriculum Guide for the Moral and National Education (MNE Curriculum Guide) in May 2011. It quickly caught attention of teachers, academia and the community. When the Government announced the refined MNE Curriculum Guide on 30 April 2012, the concerns about under playing the importance of a broader Citizenship Education and doubts about avoiding indoctrination were not resolved. These unresolved issues during the previous Administration have led to widespread community concerns being expressed to the current Administration. The lack of a resolution mechanism means that the issue of national education will remain contested within the Hong Kong community. 

The Centre for Governance and Citizenship (CGC) is dedicated to interdisciplinary scholarly research and public discourse on governance issues and citizenship studies, including citizenship education. We have decided to introduce this section on “Debates on National Education” to encourage widespread debate among CGC members’ as well as the community. We also want to highlight important research and commentaries that can help to provide a context for understanding the current debate on national education.

The Centre, therefore aims to stimulate and cultivate a platform for intellectual and communal dialogue on a wide range of governance and citizenship issue issues. For this particular page, the focus is on National Education and related issues.
 
If you have any views you would like to share or feedback on what already appears on the website, please email us at:
 
 
Please participate!

2. Commentaries: Newspaper Articles and Other Media

2015.10.06 「學校的公民使命與校政民主化」《通識Plus2.0》網誌

(梁恩榮是香港教育學院教育政策與領導學系客席副教授;管治與公民研究中心聯席總監)

"近期財政司司長曾俊華曾指,現時的青年人愈來愈重視「後物質主義的價值」,追求「心中的富有」。中央政策組(2012)一份名為《香港年輕人的社會態度》的研究報告更直接指出,因不滿政府或建制而參與學運的青年人,很多都是受到正面的價值理想,如民主、人權等所感召而行動的。..."

網址: http://ls-plus-hk.com/?page_id=1869 ()      http://ls-plus-hk.com/?page_id=1875 ()

2013.02.02 國民身份與國民教育公開講座系列() : 人權法治與國民教育: 兩岸四地的對話

國民身份及國民教育公開講座系列於201211月及20131月舉辦兩次講座,先就「德育及國民教育科」轉為校本自決模式後,與不同持份者包括家長、學者、教師、校長、準教師、關注少數族裔學生權益人士等討論如何保持學校的公民使命;繼而邀得三所學校代表分享自己學校就推廣公民教育與國民教育時所採取的具體策略及使用的教材、教案,以警惕避免「灌輸」式教學。是次緊接之講座有來自港澳台的學者來檢視國民教育這命題與人權、法治概念方面的互涉。
網址: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fTPmJ3ueIMo

2013.01.26 國民身份及國民教育公開講座系列():公民教育與國民教育的多元教學模式 

自《中國模式國情專題教學手冊》掀起國民教育爭議後,怎樣或應採取什麼模式作為國民與公民教育的學與教策略,一直困擾教育同工。各種策略包括獨立或不獨立成科、主題式教學、融滲式教學等等,要怎樣才能警惕它們不會是「灌輸」式教學,不會被批評為「洗腦」,建立學生、家長及公眾信心呢?
是次講座邀請得三所學校代表,以親身經驗來剖析及說明自己怎樣面對有關問題。他們將會與參加者分享自己學校所採取的具體策略及使用的教材、教案。而本講座亦邀請得學者從教育學觀點與各位分享交流在學校中推廣公民教育與國民教育的可行方式。
網址: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMdbx6g0L1o

2012.11.03 國民身份及國民教育公開講座系列()德育及國民教育科轉為校本自決模式後 如何保持學校的公民使命?

自教育局2011年初發出「德育及國民教育科」課程指引(以下簡稱 「指引」)諮詢稿,到2012年公布「指引」修訂版,關注該「指引」內容及推行措施的層面由教育界學者、教師、學生等擴展到家長以及公民社會;當中掀起不少重要討論,包括公民身份、國家範疇內具爭議性議題討論的處理、科目開設對非華裔少數族裔學生帶來的影響、國族與黨國區分、警惕「灌輸」式教學等等。
最新的發展,是當局於822日設立「開展德育及國民教育科委員會」,再於98日宣布予各辦學團體自行決定是否開展德育及國民教育科和會否獨立成科、並表示將由課程發展議會再檢視指引中尤其引起爭議的部分、以及當學校決定不獨立成科則相關內容是否可加入中國歷史等其他科目互相配合等等。要尋求共識,有需要透過各種渠道,促進公眾對問題的了解,並推動交流對話。
這次研討活動邀請了不同持份者從他們的角度出發,一起替此課題把脈,與公眾一起討論在現時情況下,如何保持學校的公民使命。
網址:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUXLn6UDZio

2012.10.30 甘國臻:我們應否摒棄國民教育?,明報

(甘國臻是香港教育學院管治與公民研究中心總監)
"行政長官梁振英宣布,同意擱置德育及國民教育科課程指引,這意味着我們會否有這全新的學科,決定權就在學校手上。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/20121030/-6-2810637/1.html

2012.10.19 梁恩榮、盧恩臨:下一步,如何走?——回歸及重構公民教育,明報
"10 8 日,特首宣布接納「開展國教科委員會」的建議擱置《國教科指引》,又承諾在其5 年任期內不會重推官方《指引》。「開展國教科委員會」主席胡紅玉指出因《指引》令人不安,故應擱置。她也指出擱置《指引》後, 政府不會檢討、修訂《指引》,教育局更不會以此作為視學依據。「民間反對國民教育科大聯盟」雖對政府堅持不用「撤科」感到失望,但對政府的決定也表示「收貨」。簡單來說就是「回到起步點」,由各學校自決如何推行德育、國民及公民教育。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/20121019/-6-2802181/1.html

2012.09.29 莊耀洸、盧恩臨: 學生是否有不愛國的自由?,明報
(莊耀洸是香港教育學院管治與公民研究中心研究員及教育政策與領導學系一級專任導師,盧恩臨是香港教育學院教育政策與領導學系高級研究助理)
"香港不少學校定期舉辦升旗禮,作為國民教育的一個環節,增加學生對國家的認同及培養學生的愛國情操,當中涉及肅立、唱國歌,甚至向國旗敬禮等。《基本法》、《香港人權法案條例》及《兒童權利公約》皆保障香港公民及兒童的表達自由,若學生基於各種理由而不想參與升旗禮或其中任何一部分,是否有權拒絕?一些學校將這些愛國活動列為必修項目,若學生不參與,會否被視作曠課,需接受相關處罰?強迫學生參與是否合理合法?本文從法理角度探討此議題。假如香港有官司,肯定會參考以下兩宗美國權威案例。..."
網址: http://news.sina.com.hk/news/6/1/1/2784248/1.html

 2012.09.02  HK's Ethnic Minority Students and National Education, South China Morning Post (Videos)
Web link:  http://www.scmp.com/video?movideo_m=220976

National Education & Critical Thinking*
*This is an adapted version of an article that first appeared in the South China Morning Post on 14 June 2012.
Web link: http://www.ied.edu.hk/include/getrichfile.php?key=bb3bb31df61aafaf57d7ca43a2621842&secid=3126&filename=cgc/NationalEducationCriticalThinking_1.pdf

 2012.08.14 吳凱宇: 「一國兩制」下的國民教育——北愛爾蘭的啟示,明報
"自從政府宣布推行「德育及國民教育」科以來,社會大眾爭議不斷,究竟國際上有沒有類似香港這樣,在「一國兩制」的條件下推行國民教育的個案可供參考?筆者認為北愛爾蘭的經驗有不少地方值得借鑑。但首先要澄清一點,北愛爾蘭與很多歐美民主社會一樣,所推行的不是國民教育,而是公民教育,國民身分只是課程的其中一部分。..."
網址: http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2744027/1.html

2012.08.08 吳凱宇: 每個國家都有國民教育?
——簡述美國、英國、澳洲、德國的制度,明報
(吳凱宇是香港教育學院社會科學系博士研究生)
"自從政府推出《德育及國民教育科課程指引》後,引起社會極大爭議,但不少支持此科的人士都說推行國民教育是國際慣例,所以並不值得大驚小怪。究竟此說是否真確?要解答這個問題,我們先要了解國民教育在香港的定義,才可與其他地方比較。..."
網址: http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2739084/1.html

2012.07.28 梁恩榮: 香港家書:國民教育應重新進行諮詢,香港電台
(梁恩榮是香港教育學院管治與公民研究中心副總監)
"香港沒錯是一個資訊流通的多元社會,故此學生難以被「灌輸」,但並不代表可對學生進行「灌輸」,若果教師真的採用了內容偏頗的教材,而最後學生卻仍然有獨立思考,只可以說明灌輸不成功而已,不等於不會有「灌輸」的危機,更不能合理化灌輸這個行為。..."
網址1http://programme.rthk.org.hk/channel/radio/programme.php?name=/hkletter&d=2012-07-28&p=1085&e=186070&m=episode
網址2 (Media 播放)http://www.rthk.org.hk/asx/rthk/radio1/hkletter/20120728.asx

2012.07.27 趙振洲: 國民教育無罪 如何教才關鍵,香港經濟日報
(趙振洲是香港教育學院課程與教學學系助理教授)
"每日如果單靠聽新聞看報紙了解中國大陸,常常覺得那裏生活的人們正處於「水深火熱」之中、朝不保夕︰無民主、無自由,食品安全、城市基本設施和交通安全無一能夠保障——奇怪,人們怎麼能夠生存下去?而官員整日忙着腐敗、結黨營私。這樣的祖國讓人如何去愛?... "
網址: http://www.hket.com/eti/article/d4276b7d-0419-42c4-8a2e-a432354234a5-114958

2012.07.24 盧恩臨: 學民思潮與兒童權利,明報
(盧恩臨是香港教育學院教育政策與領導學系高級研究助理) 
"最近學民思潮的同學積極爭取撤回德育及國民教育科,但教育局長一直迴避與這些同學公開對談,在多番要求下,才與同學在商台節目中對談一小時,令筆者慨嘆局長對兒童權利的忽視。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2726569/1.html

2012.07.18 梁恩榮、鄧秀貞: 國民教育與少數族裔,明報
(鄧秀貞是香港教育學院教育政策與領導學系高級研究助理)
"《德育及國民教育科課程指引》(下稱《指引》)其中一個大缺失是假設香港是一個同質的華人社會,對於居港非華裔人士來說,藉國民教育來培育他們對中華人民共和國的身分認同和歸屬感,根本上是緣木求魚。對於居港非華裔人士來說,培育對香港本地的身分認同和世界公民的視野,比培育對中華人民共和國的認同更重要和更有意義。由此可見,《指引》根本上是完全忽略了居港非華裔人士的需要,不利於建構一個多元文化的社會。... "
網址: http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2721401/1.html

2012.07.09 梁恩榮、盧恩臨:「國民教育」與獨立課時 ,明報
"筆者曾在73日《明報》「觀點版」指出,在當代公民教育的論述中,公民是指「多元公民」,國民只是多元公民的一個環節,故此,公民教育是一個比國民教育涵蓋面更廣闊的理念;而國際文獻也指出,在一個民主社會或民主制度在發展中的社會,帶有排他性的國民教育必須定位在包容性較強的公民教育的框架下。因此《德育與國民課程指引》仍堅持以國民教育命名,是缺乏理據的。在下文的討論,我們會採用公民教育的命名來討論獨立成科的問題。自《德育及國民教育科課程指引諮詢稿》發布以來,教師一直對推行公民教育是否必須獨立成科也有不少爭論。我們認為是否用「科」來命名並不重要,最重要是必須有獨立課時。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2713316/1.html

2012.07.03 梁恩榮、盧恩臨:在「公民教育」框架內的「國民教育」,明報
"政府最新公布的《德育及國民教育科課程指引》已根據諮詢期公眾所提出的意見作出不少改善,但是筆者認為《指引》堅持以「國民教育」取代「公民教育」作為命名,在學理上犯了明顯的錯誤,不可接受。根據文獻,在一個民主或民主制度仍在發展的社會,其國民教育必須定位在公民教育的框架下。下文會探討這個定位的含意及據此分析《指引》。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2708186/1.html

2012.06.28 梁恩榮、鄧秀貞:一份「指鹿為馬」的課程指引,明報
"經歷了差不多一年的諮詢,今年4月底推出的《德育及國民教育科課程指引(小一至中六)》雖然已有一定的進步,例如回應了部分的公眾批評和建議,於《指引》中作出了修改,包括將原先只在世界範疇出現的如人權、法治、民主、公義等普世價值加入包括國家範疇在內的各個生活範疇,又提出可探討「國家於普世價值體現的問題及處理」,亦列明教師「不應該迴避討論爭議性議題」等。換句話說,教師不需要迴避選用合適議題,包括李旺陽、六四學運等事件,來討論一黨專政、民主中國等議題。..."
網址:http://news.sina.com.hk/news/8/1/1/2703808/1.html

 

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3. Journal Publications

Leung, Y.W. , Yuen, T.Y.Y., Cheng, E. C.K. & Chow, J.K.F. (2014). ‘Is Student Participation in School Governance a “Mission impossible”?’ , Journal of Social Science Education, 13(4), 19-34. DOI: 10.2390/jsse-v13-i4-1363

This Chinese online essay is based on the above original journal article:

Web-link: http://www.jsse.org/index.php/jsse/article/view/1363

Fairbrother, G. P. (2010). Alternative Policy Measures for Improving Citizenship Education in Hong Kong. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 77-90.

Fairbrother, G. P. & Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Civic Education Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: What Should be the Direction Under Chinese Sovereignty?. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(4), 425-443.
Abstract: This article uses results from a cross-national analysis of the impact of varying approaches to civic education curriculum delivery on three learning outcomes, to draw conclusions about the value of a government-mandated compulsory, independent subject of civic education in the school curriculum. It starts from the context of Hong Kong, where there have been repeated calls for the government to reform civic education, and compares this context with that of England, where citizenship education was made a statutory subject in 2002. The article then examines from the cases of 25 societies whether a compulsory approach to and/or independent subject of civic education is associated with better learning of civic knowledge, knowledge of democracy, and patriotism. Finding that the impact of curricular approaches is somewhat negligible taking other factors into consideration, the article concludes that civic education reformers should consider the costs of limiting school autonomy in curriculum delivery.
Web-link:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/12460

Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Young Citizens in Hong Kong: Obedient, Active and Patriotic?. Social Psychology of Education, 13(1), 111-127. 
Abstract: There are multiple ways of understanding citizenship: as a status conferred by a nation state, a personal identity constructed in response to particular circumstances or a social identity developed out of group membership. These are not mutually exclusive categories: an individual may experience "citizenships” that integrate these legal, personal and social identities. Yet how do young people who are not yet citizens understand what it means to be a citizen? In the present study, 15-year-old Hong Kong students were surveyed 2 years after the transition from colonial rule to Chinese sovereignty. They were asked to respond to a series of questions about citizenship responsibilities and the way they saw these reflected in ‘good citizens’. The results showed that students viewed citizenship responsibilities as multidimensional with reference to specific groups. They identified legal obligations related to civil authorities, personal obligations to support other members of the community and patriotic obligations to support the nation-state.
Web-link: http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/9352
 

Law, Kam Yee & Lee, Kim Ming (2012). The Myth of Multiculturalism in ‘Asia’s World City’: Incomprehensive Policies for Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 5(1), 117-134.
Abstract: Branded by its government as ‘Asia’s world city’, Hong Kong is described as ‘an open, tolerant and pluralistic community, and a city rich in culture and tradition’. However, beneath this 'harmony’ lies the fact that majority of Hong Kong Chinese socially exclude many South Asian ethnic groups. The Hong Kong government similarly lacks a multicultural policy that encourages its citizens to respect other races and provides resources for ethnic groups to cultivate and maintain their well-being and cultural identities. In this article, the authors will probe into the actual depth of the Hong Kong public and government’s self-image of diversity and tolerance and determine whether another reality is hidden behind the beautiful exposition. A discussion follows on the changed or unchanged scenarios influenced by public policies for ethnic minorities, who regard the city as their second home or were born here, since Hong Kong returned to China. Although Hong Kong has been handed over to China for 15 years, the legacy of colonialism is found to be apparent when we attempt to critically review the plight of ethnic minorities in the city through the framework of multiculturalism.
Web-link:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/12411

Leung, Y. W. & Ngai, S. K. G. (2011). Competing Citizenship Identities in the Global Age: The Case of Hong Kong. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 6(3), 251-267.

Leung Y. W. & Yuen W. W. T. (2012). Competition Between Politicized and Depoliticized Versions of Civic Education Curricula: The Case of Hong Kong. Citizenship Social and Economics Education, 11 (1), 46-57.

Yuen, W. W. T. & Leung, Y. W. (2009). Political Education: Controversial Issues, Neutrality of Teachers, and Merits of Team Teaching. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 8(2/3), 99-115.
Abstract: This article examines political education, particularly regarding such matters as discussion of controversial issues, neutrality of teachers and the merits of team teaching. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with students who had completed a political education course taught by the authors. It is hoped that the paper will assist understanding of the complexities of political education on the one hand, and provide practical recommendations to educators working with political education on the other.
Web-link:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/10215

趙振洲 (2009):中國大陸對公民教育的詮釋,《教育學報》37 (1/2),頁 57-69。
摘要: 在中國大陸,公民教育已經不再被視作資本主義的衍生品,在最近十年廣受關注。本文從全球意識形態景觀的視角出發,探討中國大陸學者如何通過翻譯和演繹,把「公民教育」這個外來語賦予本土內涵。公民教育的本土建構主要體現在三個主要議題上:打破國家霸權 (民眾和社會成為決策參與者)、爭取民主 (民眾常被批評缺少公民意識,這也被解釋為社會缺少民主氛圍的原因,但公民教育的研究者借此論證實施公民教育的必要)、平衡政治身分與文化身分 (反映出知識分子自我的文化覺醒和對共產主義/社會主義的失望)。
網址:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/11480

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4. Book Chapters

Mason, M. (2011). Multiculturalism, Shared Values, and an Ethical Response to Globalization. In P. Hershock, M. Mason & J. Hawkins (Eds.), Changing Education: Leadership, Innovation and Development in a Globalizing Asia Pacific (pp. 104-123). Tokyo: Tamagawa University Press.

Ng, S. W. (2010). On Becoming an Active and Participatory Citizen: A Study on Education and Political Socialization in Hong Kong. In E. Pennington & D. Schugurensky, Learning Citizenship by Practicing Democracy: International Initiatives and Perspectives (pp. 50-65). New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Web-link:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/11228

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5. Conference Papers

Chong, King Man (2010, July). Perceptions of Hong Kong’s Primary School Teachers on National Identity and National Education. The 17th International Conference on Learning, Hong Kong.
Abstract: Since the return of sovereignty to China in 1997, national identification with China has been a priority in Hong Kong SAR government’s educational policy agenda. There are increasingly more National Education activities which aim at cultivating a Chinese national identity. Academic literature about national identity has pointed to identities change in relation to evolving events and circumstances. Based on perception studies in education, this study employs case studies with qualitative research method of in-depth interviews on target samples of Hong Kong’s primary school civic education coordinators, and examining National Education relevant school documents in their respective schools. This study analyzes how do primary school teachers perceive their national identity since 1997, and how do they teach National Education. The findings reveal that under the proclamation of a Chinese national identity, there are differences in emphases on their national identity, and they have got diversified teaching strategies on National Education. These findings have implications for understanding the meanings of national identity and teaching of National Education in Hong Kong in this globalized era.
To Download:
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Chong, King Man (2009, May). A Pilot Study on Perceptions of Hong Kong's Secondary School Teachers on 'National Identity’ and 'National Education’. Education Research Group Seminar, York, U.K.
Abstract: Since the return of sovereignty to China in 1997, national identification with China has been a priority in Hong Kong SAR government’s educational policy agenda. Hong Kong has seen an increase of national education activities which aim at cultivating a Chinese identity with emphasis on ethnic and cultural dimensions. By using case studies with in-depth interviews on selected samples of Hong Kong’s secondary school teachers, this study analyzes how do they perceive their national identity and how do they teach national education. The findings reveal that under the proclamation of Chinese national identity, there are differences in connotation emphases on their own national identity given by the respondents and they have different teaching strategies on national education. These findings have implications for understanding the meanings of national identity and national education in Hong Kong in a globalization era.
Web-link:
http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/10279

Law, Kam Yee (2009). Post-colonialism, Sinicization and the Governance of Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong,澳門區域公共管理研究學會主編《提昇公共管治能力,強化區域行政合作:兩岸四地慶祝澳門回歸十週年學術研討會文集》,(頁81-101),澳門,澳門大學、澳門區域公共管理研究學會。 
Web-link: http://repository.ied.edu.hk/dspace/handle/2260.2/11149
 

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