Human Insulin Production

The hormone insulin is essential for the control of blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which some people cannot make insulin themselves. This disease kills many people in the world every year.

Insulin has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since 1922 when Leonard Thompson became the first human to receive an injection of man-made insulin.

Production of Genetic Engineered Insulin

1. Human insulin is extracted from pancreas cells and an insulin-producing gene is isolated.

2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a bacterium and cut with restriction enzyme, forming plasmid vector.

3. Insert human insulin-producing gene into the bacterial plasmid vector to form the recombinant DNA of human insulin-producing gene.

4. Introduce this recombinant DNA into a bacterial cell to form the recombinant bacterium.

5. The recombinant bacteria multiply in a fermentation tank and produce human insulin.

6. Insulin is extracted, purified and bottled. It is then ready to be injected into diabetic patients.

Recombinant HB Vaccine Production

Hepatitis B (HB) is one of the most common infectious diseases known to man.

The World Health Organization estimates that there are as many as 285 million chronic carriers of this virus worldwide.

Traditional vaccines use a weakened or killed form of a virus to force the body to develop antibodies that are strong enough to combat the virus.

Traditional Vaccination for Hepatitis B

Recombivax HB

Recombivax HB was approved as a hepatitis B prevention vaccine in July 1986.

Using recombinant DNA technology, Recombivax HB uses the surface antigen of the virus that stimulates the production of protective antibodies which combat the HB virus.

Production of Recombivax HB

1. HB antigen producing gene is isolated from the HB virus.

2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a bacterium and is cut with restriction enzyme forming the plasmid vector.

3. The isolated HB antigen producing gene is inserted into the bacterial plasmid vector on forming the recombinant DNA.

4. This recombinant DNA, containing the target gene, is introduced into a yeast cell forming the recombinant yeast cell.

5. The recombinant yeast cell multiplies in the fermentation tank and produces the HB antigens.

6. The HB antigens are extracted , purified and bottled. It is ready for vaccination in humans.

Advantage of Recombivax HB

Recombivax HB has a significant advantage over the conventional HB Vaccine.

Since only small amounts of protein of the virus are present in the vaccine and the virus itself is not used; it is impossible for a person to become infected by the vaccine.

Protropin (Human Growth Hormone) Production

Growth hormone inadequacy (GHI) occurs when the pituitary gland, at the base of the brain, fails to produce enough growth hormone to stimulate growth.

According to the Human Growth Foundation, an estimation of 15,000 children in the United States have GHI.


Protropin was approved for treating human growth hormone deficiency in children in May 1985. It has also been approved to be used in 67 countries where it is marketed by licenses.

It is the first biotechnology-derived human growth hormone treating thousands of children with GHI.

Protropin (Synthetic versions by the trade names of Somatrem and Somatropin etc.) is administered by injection during childhood to stimulate and regulate body growth.

Production of Protropin

1. A gene that produces growth hormone in humans is isolated.

2. The growth hormone production gene is inserted into the DNA of E.Coli bacteria.

3. The bacteria recognise the inserted DNA as its own DNA and begin to produce human growth hormone.

4. The bacteria multiply and produce the growth hormone in a culturing media.

5. The growth hormone is extracted and purfied and is then ready to be injected into children with GHI.


Cell-mediated Immune ResponseDiagnosis

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