Human Insulin Production
The hormone insulin is essential for the control of blood sugar levels.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which some people cannot make insulin
themselves. This disease kills many people in the world every year.
Insulin has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since 1922
when Leonard Thompson became the first human to receive an injection of
Production of Genetic Engineered Insulin
1. Human insulin is extracted from pancreas cells and an insulin-producing
gene is isolated.
2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a bacterium and cut with restriction
enzyme, forming plasmid vector.
3. Insert human insulin-producing gene into the bacterial plasmid vector
to form the recombinant DNA of human insulin-producing gene.
4. Introduce this recombinant DNA into a bacterial cell to form the recombinant
5. The recombinant bacteria multiply in a fermentation tank and produce
6. Insulin is extracted, purified and bottled. It is then ready to be injected
into diabetic patients.
Recombinant HB Vaccine Production
Hepatitis B (HB) is one of the most common infectious diseases known to
The World Health Organization estimates that there are as many as 285 million
chronic carriers of this virus worldwide.
Traditional vaccines use a weakened or killed form of a virus to force
the body to develop antibodies that are strong enough to combat the virus.
Traditional Vaccination for Hepatitis B
Recombivax HB was approved as a hepatitis B prevention vaccine in July
Using recombinant DNA technology, Recombivax HB uses the surface antigen
of the virus that stimulates the production of protective antibodies which
combat the HB virus.
Production of Recombivax HB
1. HB antigen producing gene is isolated from the HB virus.
2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a bacterium and is cut with restriction
enzyme forming the plasmid vector.
3. The isolated HB antigen producing gene is inserted into the bacterial
plasmid vector on forming the recombinant DNA.
4. This recombinant DNA, containing the target gene, is introduced into
a yeast cell forming the recombinant yeast cell.
5. The recombinant yeast cell multiplies in the fermentation tank and produces
the HB antigens.
6. The HB antigens are extracted , purified and bottled. It is ready for
vaccination in humans.
Advantage of Recombivax HB
Recombivax HB has a significant advantage over the conventional HB Vaccine.
Since only small amounts of protein of the virus are present in the vaccine
and the virus itself is not used; it is impossible for a person to become
infected by the vaccine.
Protropin (Human Growth Hormone) Production
Growth hormone inadequacy (GHI) occurs when the pituitary gland, at the
base of the brain, fails to produce enough growth hormone to stimulate growth.
According to the Human Growth Foundation, an estimation of 15,000 children
in the United States have GHI.
Protropin was approved for treating human growth hormone deficiency in
children in May 1985. It has also been approved to be used in 67 countries
where it is marketed by licenses.
It is the first biotechnology-derived human growth hormone treating thousands
of children with GHI.
Protropin (Synthetic versions by the trade names of Somatrem and Somatropin
etc.) is administered by injection during childhood to stimulate and regulate
Production of Protropin
1. A gene that produces growth hormone in humans is isolated.
2. The growth hormone production gene is inserted into the DNA of E.Coli
3. The bacteria recognise the inserted DNA as its own DNA and begin to
produce human growth hormone.
4. The bacteria multiply and produce the growth hormone in a culturing
5. The growth hormone is extracted and purfied and is then ready to be
injected into children with GHI.
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